- Binder, Frederick M., and David M. Reimers. (1995) “Diversity in Action: Irish and German Immigrants in a Growing City, 1789-1880,” pp. 59-92 (CH3) in All the Nations Under Heaven: An Ethnic and Racial History of New York City. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Riis, Jacob A. (1890) How the Other Half Lives. New York: Charles Scribner’s Sons. Read:
- Genesis of the Tenements
- The Awakening
- The Mixed Crowd