The readings in this section deal directly with the evolution of borders, the rise of nation-states as an means of ordering the world, borders and citizenship regimes as demarcations of inclusion/exclusion, and philosophical debates about enforcement of borders. Carr's articles provides an overview of the history and rise of borders. He points out that prior to WWI and WWII, the idea of hard borders was far more rare.
- Carr, Matt (2013) “Beyond the Border,” History Today (63:1)
- Wilcox, Shirley (2009) “The Open Borders Debate on Immigration,” Philosophy Compass 4(1):1-9